Strengthening for skiing

Knee injuries are the most common major injury sustained by skiers, they account for around a third of all ski injuries, with the ligaments most commonly affected.

Before deciding to cancel your ski trip in favour of something safer, however, it’s important to define the risk of injury – it is extremely low. The chance of a skier sustaining a serious injury is only three in every 1,000 ski-days. On average, you would have to ski for about 2,100 days to sustain an ACL rupture. While a skiing knee injury is often just bad luck – with many ACL injuries occurring on lower slopes where a fall is not fast enough for skis to come off – there are some simple things you can do to reduce the chances of injury.

Your quadriceps; front of the thigh muscles, are arguably the hardest working muscles while skiing. When it comes to building strength in the legs and gluteals you can’t get much more effective than lunges and squats – be sure to hold dumbbells that are heavy enough to cause your muscles to feel fatigued toward the end of an eight to twelve repetition set.

A good variation to squats are squat jumps. Start with your feet shoulder-width apart and squat down so your thighs are parallel to the floor, then jump high in the air. Try to land softly on your feet. This exercise not only develops strength in the quads and gluteals, it also develops explosiveness which is necessary if you want to ski fast and push hard out of turns. Due to the explosiveness of the exercise you will feel muscles fatigue quickly so consider more sets of low repetitions.

A wall-sit, an isometric exercise also aimed at strengthening your quadriceps. With your back against a wall, bend your knees to a 90-degree angle. Keep your lower legs perpendicular to the floor. Hold the pose for 30 seconds, and then repeat for three sets, resting for 30 seconds between each set.  As you continue to practice this exercise, you can progress in difficulty by increasing the hold time. Another way to increase difficulty is to hold your knees at a 45 degree angle.

Hamstring strength is really important to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries, which are common in skiing, by working the hamstrings, you help stabilize the knee joint and prevent injuries. Romanian deadlifts are an excellent way to do this. Bend your knees slightly, keeping your back straight, then lean forward with a barbell, hinging at the hips. Push your hips forward and return to a standing position.

Your core muscles work hard when you ski, especially when you change direction or ski over rough terrain. Core muscles consist of your abdominals, waist and back muscles; a strong core also supports your spine and may reduce your risk of injury, so training for a strong core is something which cannot be ignored. The plank is an excellent exercise to help core strength. Lie on your front with your arms bent and elbows resting on the floor. Lift your hips so your weight is supported on your arms and toes only. Hold this position for 30 to 60 seconds, ensuring your core is engaged by pulling in your stomach, and then rest and repeat. Do not hold your breath as this may cause your blood pressure to rise and also causes different muscles to engage, thus reducing the effectiveness of the exercise. The plank can also be performed on your side to target your oblique or waist muscles.

Exercise for six to eight weeks before departure. For many people, their one week’s skiing is the most intense exercise they will do all year so their muscles are more susceptible to injury. Beware of fatigue and don’t attempt that last run if you’re feeling tired, also remember that the third day is when your body is most fatigued and there is a higher chance of an accident.


Top 10 Plant-Based Research and News Stories in 2016

In 2005 “The China study” was published, the largest nutritional study that has ever been undertaken.  The conclusion was that countries with a high consumption of animal based foods were more likely to have higher death rates from “western diseases” as opposed to countries that ate more plant based foods.

This update looks at the top ten research and news articles to hit the headlines in the last year.

10) Major nutrition group states that well-planned vegan diets (with select supplements) are safe and healthy for all ages

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the professional organization of dietitians, released a position statement on vegetarian diets, saying appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets “are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes.” They go on to highlight the benefits of plant-based diets, including a nice explanation of specific nutrient concerns and non-concerns as well as the environmental impact of food choices.

9) Lifestyle vs Genes

In a cohort study looking at coronary artery disease, lifestyle and genes, researchers found that individuals with 3-4 lifestyle factors had about a 50% reduction in risk compared to those with 0-1 lifestyle factors. This was true across all levels of genetic risk. The 4 lifestyle behaviours: not smoking, BMI <30 (ie. being healthy weight or overweight, not obese), physical activity at least once a week, following ½ of the modest heart organization dietary recommendations.

These are pretty low bars for a healthy diet and lifestyle. Adopting these factors, compared to those not following healthy lifestyles, was about as beneficial as having low genetic risk compared to having high genetic risk.

8) Plant-Based Olympians

Two American athletes, tennis player Venus Williams and weight lifter Kendrick Farris, and one Australian athlete, sprinter Morgan Mitchell, competed in the 2016 Rio Olympics. Venus Williams has been eating a largely plant-based diet for the past 5 years since being diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome, an autoimmune disorder. She took home a silver medal in mixed-doubles from Rio.

Prior to the 2016 Olympics, Kendrick Farris broke the U.S. record in his weight class of 207 lbs by lifting a combined 831 lbs. He placed 11th at the games. This was his 3rd Olympics and his first as a vegan.

Morgan Mitchell, the Australian sprinter who won the Australian 2016 National Title prior to this summer’s games placed 8th in the 400m. She too, is relatively new to veganism, changing her diet about 1 ½ years before the games.

7) Animal protein keeps taking hits

One study found that eating plant protein instead of animal protein cuts risk of death. An editorial in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition made a compelling case that eating excess animal protein, particularly dairy protein, is a contributor to childhood obesity and related diseases. Women who get diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) are at a significantly higher risk of later getting full blown type 2 diabetes if they eat a low-carb dietary pattern, particularly if it is rich in animal protein and fat. And postmenopausal women who consume the most animal protein are at a 60% increased risk of getting heart failure compared to those who consume the least animal protein.

6) A healthy diet is not just about protein or plants vs animals

A study of health-conscious people in Oxford found that vegetarians and vegans unfortunately eat just as much fat and sugar as omnivores. This is not a knock on vegans or veganism, which incorporates important lifestyle and food ideas that go far beyond nutrition and health. But we consistently have found that consuming added sugars and fats present a persistent challenge to achieving optimal health, for both omnivores and strict vegans. Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added to foods or beverages when they are processed or prepared. Added sugars do not refer to whole foods like fruit. It’s too easy to get stuck in the animals vs. plants fight and forget about added fats and sugars, which present perhaps equally grave threats to most people’s health.

5) Ancient humans ate an abundant variety of plants

A site deemed to be 780,000 years old included plant remains that human ancestors were using as food. A rich, wide variety of plant remains were found, including 14 species producing underground storage organs (ie. starchy plants, like tubers). The popular idea that the paleo diet was a starch-free, nearly carnivorous diet consisting of hunting woolly mammoths and deer is a long outdated public myth we should just dispense with. From this study and many others, it’s clear we consumed lots of plants in addition to whatever meat we ate.

4) High-protein supplements negate the beneficial effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity

One of the great benefits of weight loss is often in insulin sensitivity, but one fascinating study found that merely consuming two servings of whey protein a day in addition to a standard low-calorie diet eliminated the benefit of weight loss. People lost weight but had no improvements in insulin sensitivity. Many people commonly try to lose weight by eating protein bars and shakes and protein-based meal replacements. Even if they lose weight, they may be sabotaging their efforts at improving metabolic health if they consume extra protein, particularly whey protein.

3) Chinese government says to eat less meat

The Chinese government recently recommended decreasing meat intake to 50% of current levels by 2030. The updated dietary guidelines are aimed at curbing the rapidly growing rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in China. China currently consumes 28% of the world’s meat and 50% of its pork. This decrease in meat consumption is also predicted to be a big win for the environment, reducing the predicted 2030 greenhouse gas emissions from the Chinese livestock industry by more than half.

These new recommendations have found allies in Hollywood. Arnold Schwarzenegger and James Cameron as well as Chinese film star Li Bingbing who are featured in public service announcements in collaboration with environmental organization WildAid and the Chinese government. The government is encourage the Chinese public to reduce their meat intake to improve health and avoid global warming.

2) Moderation doesn’t work

Though our culture is terribly enamoured with moderation, we consistently see in our practice that moderation gets in the way of achieving health. Researchers looking to better understand how people define “moderation” found that there are lots of problems with the term. Most people seem to define moderation by assessing the amount they would prefer to eat and then adding a bit more. If you would prefer 5 cookies, a moderate amount in your mind would be 6 cookies. If another person would only prefer 1 cookie, they would probably say that a moderate amount would be 2 cookies. Everything in moderation as a health message is useless at best and profoundly harmful at worst. Researchers write, “If, as we show, the concept of moderation is poorly understood and subject to potential self-serving biases in perception, moderation messages may do little to reduce calorific intake and may actually result in increased food consumption.”

1) Going vegan might save millions of humans, trillions of dollars, and maybe planet Earth

A group of researchers at Oxford University published an analysis comparing the future effects of three different dietary scenarios out to the year 2050. They considered effects on global human mortality, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic value of health and environmental benefits. The three dietary patterns were 1) a moderate pattern following dietary guidelines 2) vegetarian and 3) vegan. Global adoption of any of the three dietary scenarios would be beneficial, but the more plant-based the diet, the greater the benefit. Global adoption of a vegan diet was projected to avoid 8.1 million deaths per year and reduce mortality by 10% for all causes by 2050. Vegan diets were projected to reduce food-related greenhouse gas emissions by 70% of those predicted in 2050. A vegan diet was projected to save $1067 billion per year in health-related costs (3.3% of the predicted global GDP) and $570 billion per year due to the avoided environmental harm.


10km Training

10km is the most popular race distance in the UK, being used by beginner runners as their first target, intermediate runners to improve stamina and technique and advanced runners to achieve and smash their personal best. The average time for a 10k is around an hour, depending on your fitness levels and experience.

Training becomes a great deal easier once you’ve booked in your race and made a commitment. Giving you 12-16 weeks to train is ideal, so a pick a 10km at a time of year when you know you’ll be able to get out training 3-4 times a week without getting the sack or causing family tensions!

Whilst just getting out and aiming to run further at a slow or steady pace is an important aspect of your training, including faster running as interval sessions will give your fitness a quick boost. If your normal run represents a 6-7/10 effort, aim to include some running at 8/10 in blocks of up to 10 minutes, and some 9/10 efforts in blocks of 1-3 minutes, using fast walking as recovery.

Hill training builds strength, power and leg speed and can give you a massive boost to finding that 5th (or even 6th) gear and running at pace. It is important not to over do the hill running though as it heavily loads your legs; 1 session a week is normally enough.

Training well doesn’t have to just mean running.  Cross training and strength and conditioning can really help boost your cardiovascular fitness, whilst also leaving you stronger and with less injuries. Include a weekly cross training session and a couple of shorter core strengthening sessions to give your running a boost without putting your body under additional strain.

Most importantly, have fun. Get into the mindset of enjoying the boost competition and races can give you. Races are much easier when you are enjoying them.